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  • 當前位置:首頁>>文學交流

    李云雷:從獨特的視角“發現世界” 

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    來源:中國作家網
    作者:
    發布時間:2017-07-04
     

    最早是在《小說選刊》上讀到了肖勤的《暖》,感覺這是一篇很獨特的小說,小說寫的是一個留守兒童的故事,但視角很特別,它寫的是小等這個孩子的艱難處境,但沒有像同類題材的作品那樣強化社會性因素,而是將之置于一個特殊的情境之中,營造出了一種詭異而令人恐懼的氛圍。這包括奶奶的夢魘、慶生努力克制的情欲、山林雷雨的威嚇以及小等最后無家可歸的困境等,這些因素將小等的心靈感受意象化,也讓我們看到了作者處理題材時的獨特藝術方式。后來我才注意到,肖勤是一位貴州作家,我曾經去過貴州,在那里的高山峻嶺中穿行時,可以看到白云出岫,煙霧繚繞,當時我想,如果這里出一位作家,肯定會與別處不同,在肖勤的小說中,我看到了這種令人期待的不同。這種不同當然不只是地方色彩與地方性知識,而是在于,作家可以擁有不同于別人的一種視角,一種獨特的感知世界與呈現世界的方式,進而他(或她)就可以創造出一個獨特的藝術世界。

    肖勤的不同不僅在于她來自貴州,還在于她是仡佬族,現在還在擔任著一個鄉的鄉長。這些地區、民族以及職務上(與專業作家)的差異,深刻地影響到了她的小說的色彩、語調以及風格等各個層面,她的小說也通過對這些獨特性的呈現,通向了一個更加廣闊的世界。

    在關于《暖》的創作談中,肖勤說:“我工作在基層,‘三關’工作是近年來鄉鎮增加的一項重要內容——關愛留守兒童、關心外出務工人員、關懷空巢老人。……寫這篇小說的時候,我眼前浮現的是自己曾經遇到的那個老練地謾罵攻擊計生工作人員的六歲小女孩,當我們走進她家時,她保護著年老的祖母,自己像一個最粗野的村婦似的坐在院壩里,抱著手、翻著白眼破口大罵。”可以說,正是現實工作中所遇到的問題,以及憂思,為肖勤的創作提供了靈感與素材,而她的小說也以藝術化與典型化的方式,引起了更多人對留守兒童這一社會問題的關注,這可以說是一種理想的創作與現實的關系。在這里,鄉長這一職務與作家的身份不是互相矛盾的,而是相互促進、相得益彰的,而這也正是“人民文學”的傳統,在趙樹理、周立波、柳青的作品與現實的關系中,我們可以發現這一良性互動,而今天,我們可以在肖勤及楊守知等作家身上,可以看到這一傳統的延續。不僅在《暖》中,在小說《金寶》中,我們也可以看到肖勤對現實的獨特經驗與獨特理解,小說寫的是一個上訪戶與政府的關系,我們驚訝地看到,在二者之間出現了一種幫助上訪戶向政府施壓而從中漁利的職業,他們消息靈通,配備齊全,手法多樣,“一次次,在趙德的安排下,鄭老四像一個偷襲的戰士,不斷成功越過偵察的哨兵,直奔市、省,最后,鄭老四的目的地開始往首都北京延伸”。小說讓我們看到了當下鄉村中復雜的一面,讓我們看到了表面現實之下細微的皺褶,而這則得益于肖勤對鄉村的熟悉與了解。

    在《尋找丹砂》中,我們可以看到民族文化對肖勤的影響,丹砂、鬼魂、跳儺等帶有民族特色的事物與儀式,不僅展現出了民族意識與一種獨特的世界觀,而且在藝術上也充滿了神秘詭異的色彩;而在《霜晨月》中,修路與遷墳的矛盾,不僅涉及父子矛盾、傳統文化與現代化的矛盾,而且也涉及這個“寨子”中的人對生死的獨特態度。在對這些矛盾的捕捉與描述中,我們可以感受到肖勤與眾不同的藝術眼光。

    在《好花紅》《云上》《我叫瑪麗蓮》這三部中篇小說中,我們可以更清晰地感受到肖勤的獨特之處,以及她在不同藝術方向上的努力。這三篇小說的主人公都是女性,表現了作者對不同歷史時期女性命運的關注。《好花紅》的主人公花紅生活在一個“大時代”,即使她生長于深山之中,也被深深地卷入了歷史的漩渦之中,親人之間的愛恨情仇,革命,戰爭,地下工作,她的命運跌宕起伏,而最后,她與她所深愛的苦根在一種意想不到的場合相見,而又以一種悲劇的方式結束,讀來令人扼腕嘆息。這篇小說在歷史風云與個人命運的交織中,寫出了一個令人蕩氣回腸的愛情故事,顯示了作者高超的藝術技巧。不只如此,在小說中我們不僅看到了歷史,而且看到了“地理”——湄潭縣和大婁山,大婁山的深山密林和湄潭縣的革命風云,構成了這個小說的重要部分。它們不僅是故事的場景,而是作為有機的因素,形成了這篇小說的特殊氣息,讓小說有了一種與眾不同的藝術生命。正是在對這種極具地方性的風景與人物的描述中,小說才獲得了一種深入人心的力量。

    《云上》所寫的是一出人性扭曲的悲劇,在這篇小說中,我們看到,一個堅強的鄉村女子何秀枝如何走向了自己的反面,她如何從一個村子的“救星”轉變成了欺壓者,如何從一個自強的女性轉變成了鎮黨委書記王子尹的“情人”,然后又一步步走遠,她要挾失手打死她兒子的巖豆家,最后她讓巖豆的姐姐蕎麥,一個像她當年一樣漂亮的山村姑娘,去為王子尹“獻身”,以實現自己轉為正式干部的夢想。她的計劃在鎮長黃平的偵查下失敗了,但是她也毀了蕎麥的一生。這個小說在平靜的敘述中隱藏著巨大的能量,這既是一個人性的悲劇,也是鄉村現實中的社會悲劇。這一悲劇既來自于何秀芝人性的扭曲,也來自于以王子尹為代表的鄉鎮干部的為所欲為,以及村民們的無知——蕎麥不知道過失殺人不需要償命,才拿自己的清白去換弟弟巖豆的生命。而小說中所揭示的另一個問題,也同樣引人深思,當黃平告訴蕎麥上述“真相”時,蕎麥受不了精神上的打擊,她明白了所付出的一切原來并不是必要的,只是一種利用與羞辱,于是跳崖自殺了,這也讓我們看到了社會現實的復雜性,主觀上的啟蒙與拯救并不一定能為當事人帶來解脫,有時反而會成為一種精神負擔,這也表現出了一種深刻的悖論。這篇小說在多重矛盾之中,向我們講述了一個引人思考的故事,小說中對山村風景與人物的描繪,對鄉鎮干部生存狀態的把握,都真實而具體,而小說的構思與故事的推進和轉折,也顯示了作者駕馭題材加以藝術化的能力。

    《我叫瑪麗蓮》寫的同樣是一個來自山村的女子孟梅,她來到城市,成了一名風月場合中的女子,化名“瑪麗蓮”,小說寫了她對山村與城市不同的情感,寫了她在城市不同男人之間的輾轉,她隱藏得了絕癥的秘密,繼續賣身,只為了家鄉的母親與弟弟,而最后,她所遇到的唯一一個真心待她的人也不知所終,她臨終前,所能做的只是在墻上寫下“親愛的,我不是瑪麗蓮!”——她并不認同這種身份,而想要重新成為純潔無瑕的“孟梅”。作者以充滿同情的筆調,寫下了對這個女子命運的思考。小說中洋溢著對故鄉那個山村的思念之情,這與城市中殘酷的遭遇形成了鮮明的對比,而主人公不僅在身體上備受男人與病痛的雙重折磨,而且在精神上也備受煎熬,小說寫出了這一代青年女性所付出的慘痛代價。

    我們可以看到,對女性命運的關注,對故鄉風物的情感與描繪,以及獨特的民族意識和民族風俗,鄉鎮干部所遇到的問題及其思考,構成了肖勤小說中的不同側面,形成了一個具有不同色彩的藝術世界。而這些則來自肖勤自身的現實處境與精神處境,來自于她的“獨特性”,她正是在執著于個人獨特性的寫作中,才“發現”了一個廣闊的世界。這種“獨特性”的追求,對于作家來說未必是自覺的,在有的作家看來,甚至可能是“土”的或“舊”的,是不符合流行的美學潮流的,但是一個作家只有在對個人經驗的發掘中,才能寫出與眾不同的作品,才能創造出一個作家獨特的藝術世界,舍棄了自身的獨特性,也就失去了創作的“根”,只能跟在別人后面亦步亦趨,而無法創作出真正屬于“自己”的作品,也無法為我們的文學提供新的美學與經驗。我想,這正是肖勤小說的價值之所在,也是她所給我們的啟示。

     

     

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