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    張清華:以燕山和曠古的風的名義 

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    來源:中國作家網
    作者:
    發布時間:2017-08-14
     

    1

    在燕山曠古的峰巒與溝壑深處,有個叫做上莊的小村。如果你沒有到過這里,我當然無從去說它的孤寂和美麗,若是你到了,我自然也無須饒舌多嘴。北京向東北,一百公里以外的燕山里面,拐十道彎,再拐九道彎,在一座淌著溪水的山梁下,在白楊樹、栗樹和松柏混合的叢林深處,坐落著這個小小的村莊。山梁以60度以上的銳角直插天空,山崖上的草木蒼翠欲滴,有的幾近倒懸,讓人看上去有些眼暈。古舊的房屋和裊裊的炊煙,就在這山溝和叢林間隱約閃現著。

    一座再普通不過的村莊,卻又仿佛有稀世的孤寂,稀世的美麗。

    半個多世紀前,這村子里走出了一個青年,他從這兒走到山外用了許多天,幾十年后他回來時,已是銀發稀疏的耄耋老人。

    他是劉章,作為上一代的民歌手,他的詩可謂純而且真,樸素的鄉思,有簡約如話清新如畫的風神。他守住了自然的馨香與土地的醇厚,守住了一個歌者的本分,而且愈到晚年愈是有了與這村莊、與這片有著稀世美麗與孤寂的土地、與其背后遼遠的曠古燕山相匹配的自然與化境。

    秋日尋詩去,山深云徑斜。

    獨行無向導,一路問黃花。

    這是他的舊體詩中的一首。我并非刻意將他的新詩排除在外,但這首《山行》實在是太有古人之風,太有陶謝或是王孟式的出世情懷,與自在禪意了。相形之下,他的那些對于鄉村的吟詠、土地的悲傷,對于時弊人心的諷喻譏刺,也都獲得了最終的意義。它樸素而渺遠的禪心和古意,使我有理由認為它的作者確乎已完成了一個詩人的行旅,他走得再遠也沒有走出燕山,沒有走出古往今來中國人的想象與意念;或者反之亦然,他從沒離開燕山,從沒離開中國人的心懷與趣味,所以他走了很遠。

    如果你覺得不過意,我還可以舉出一首《晚秋山中》:“山色轉蒼涼,黃花開未了;秋風吹客心,落葉亂歸鳥。”同樣是簡約而充滿古意的味道,只是取向略顯不同,如果說前者是抵近了王國維所說的“無我之境”的話,那么這一首卻是如同“狂風吹我心,西掛咸陽樹”,或者是“淚眼問花花不語,亂紅飛過秋千去”一般的“有我之境”了。

    而且——重要的是,這樣的詩在我看來,也構成了他的兒子,本文的主角,下一代的詩人劉向東的一個起點。這個起點至關重要。他那遙遠的行旅在他兒子身上,有了更深遠的延展。這是一個因果,當然也需要慧根,幸運的是兩代人都有這樣一個慧根。劉向東沒有把他的故鄉當作是一個被概念化了的所在,甚至也不止是當作一個自然的喻體,像那些蛻變了的城市人一樣,來寄情山水,傳達閑適情懷,而是將之當做根本和本真,當做存在、故鄉、土地和生命的根基本身,所以他的這些詩也有一個總的名字:“本事”。

    2

    顯然,“本事”的含義是多重的:首先是事之所本,《漢書·藝文志》中說,“丘明(左丘明——引者按)恐弟子各安其意,以失其真,故論本事而作傳。”為防以訛傳訛,所以正本清源。其次,作為一個農業國度,本事原也指農業、農事本身,《荀子》中說,“務本事,積財物,而勿忘棲遲屑越也”,“本事不理”,云云,皆為重農勸業也。還有一層意思,便是“手段”或“能耐”之意,《西游記》第三十一回中說:“大圣神通大,妖魔本事高”,是說力氣或能量之大。可見“本事”是一個典型的一詞多義、又有“原其所本”的求證意味的詞語,向東以此為題,顯然是有深意存焉。

    所以,讀向東,最忌憚的是從表皮入手,一旦風俗化或風格化地理解他,便淺了,欠了,也偏了。他延伸了其父的自然與本真,但又摒除了上個年代所遺存下來的淺表與俗化的弊病,不再用觀賞者、局外人、逃離者的心態,去作點染、描摹,而是將這土地與家園視作了存在與事理本身,它的意義與價值,美感與虛無,這里的一切生命的生老病死與悲歡離合,都在這表象中得以皈依、自明和閃現:

    ……

    這些青草與青山同在

    野火燒不盡天火來燒

    草籽取暖于灰燼之中

    根在石縫里默默盤繞

    沒有誰能夠割斷青草

    青草手中有永遠的鐮刀

    我的詩歌也終將絕版

    不斷再版的是這些青草

    這大約就是所謂的“本事”了,這首《青草》不止是描寫自然的表象,這些在地表上生長、繁衍和枯榮的青草,其實是存在本身所顯示的周律,它們卑微渺小,卻體現了大地與生命本身的意志,比一切文字更有長存的生命與價值。

    異曲同工的還有《青蒿》,與《青草》相似,它也是寫大地上最渺小的生命,但請注意它由小到大、再由大回到小的描寫次序:“高于先人的是墳頭/而扎根于墳頭的是一束青蒿//比青蒿還高的是支撐天空的/南北雙松,天快要塌的時候/青蒿也會奮力/雜亂無章的柴草則舍身追隨//其實還有連綿不絕的群山/與群星亙久的對話/那些高高在上的主宰者呀/此刻正折服于一束青蒿”——

    它柔韌,卑小,青澀而無畏

    像一句遺言,和亡靈一起活著

    這一由小到大、由低到高,再由高大回到低和小的順序,其實也對應著世界由本真到表象,再由表象回到本真的一個過程,它表達了生命與存在的辯證法,也再次傳遞了作者對于“本事”的開悟與理解,即,小即是大,低勝過高,活著是短暫的,死亡才是永恒。

    3

    當然,我也并不愿意將事情玄學化,將向東玄虛化,這也是“本事”的一部分,是我們所應遵從的本真之理。確乎,向東如其父一樣,詩歌中也充滿了來自故鄉和土地賦予的深切愛意。上莊的一草一木,仿佛都在他的詩句中閃爍和晃動。只是相形之下,他的詩風中別有一種讓人感動的深遠和憂郁。他總是會從死亡這一終極方向來看待事物,賦予他筆下的生靈以枯榮有待的循環之中。這是他傳承中又有超越的一點。

    “……順著秋風爬上去/爬到霜天之上了/東搖西晃的牽牛花/吹響給自己送終的喇叭”。這是其《牽牛花》中的詩句,我確信這并不是諷喻詩,不是淺層象征的寓意,而是“從死亡的方向看”這樣的一種哲學視角與沖動。向東不止記錄了山野的美麗,也記錄下了村莊的衰敗,不只傳達著親情和鄉俗,也試圖復原這里的一段段歷史。這座村莊因為有了他的詩,而獲得了不一樣的地位與意義。在《時間》一首中,他表達了對年邁父親的悲憫與敬意,與前一首《野草》可謂遙相呼應,“由于時間放慢了腳步/老父親擼下手表/交給我時還帶著體溫……”

    多虧時間放慢了腳步

    給我以提煉時間的時間

    讓我們的一生

    多于一生

    村莊與父親讓他獲得了歷史,獲得了生命的譜系感,他從中體會到的也更多,更有了闊大的存在感,與曠遠的命運感。這是他的《上莊》中的句子:“我們上莊/即使就這一巴掌大/也有獨一無二的指紋/和命運的線索……//通向上莊的道路/人來/人往/腳印踩著腳印/誰是古人,誰是來者?”幾乎可以作為上莊的碑記,或者這里的逝者永遠的墓志銘了。

    向東傳承了其父劉章詩歌中的洗練與自然,但與父親相比,他有了更多哲理的簡約和深邃,也具有了一種現代的迷失與傷懷。在他的懷鄉詩篇中,類似《老屋》、《守望長城》等都讓人感動不已。《老屋》中,他從一個一般的懷鄉主題中躍升而出,有了一番歷史、文化的感喟與憑吊:“我和老屋在長城邊上/我們把自古英雄守望——/他們無處告別/也就無從離去/他們擁有江山/卻又兩手空空……/亡靈和石頭一起養神/以沉默預言戰爭”。這種尺度與眼光,確實增加了詩意的厚度與縱深感。

    4

    有細心的研究者注意到,《詩經》十五國風中,居然沒有“燕風”。這是頗為奇怪的,為什么有《齊風》、《鄭風》、《衛風》、《魏風》、《唐風》、《秦風》、《陳風》,卻獨獨沒有燕國之風?有人又解釋說,燕地處于極北荒寒,生存環境惡劣,所以不曾有采詩官留意此地的民風。或者有人也說,是夫子在編訂《詩經》的時候刪掉了也未可知。總之,這里似乎缺少了一個同樣古老的文脈傳遞。

    不過,這并不意味著沒有一種獨有的“燕地的美學”,事實上它自然的壯美與生存條件的苦寒,恰好構成了矛盾的兩面,而這正是燕山獨具的品性與風神。也唯有唐代詩人的胸襟與氣度,方能與之匹配。李賀的“大漠沙如雪,燕山月似鉤。何當金絡腦,快走踏清秋”,李白筆下的“燭龍棲寒門,光曜猶旦開。日月照之何不及此?惟有北風號怒天上來。燕山雪花大如席,片片吹落軒轅臺……”稱得上悲歌慷慨,似有建安風骨的遺韻了。當然,如今的燕地已不是古時可以同日而語,不止原始形貌更顯珍貴,生存條件也已改善良多。所以單純以“北風”與“雪花”,“冷月”與“寒門”來比擬,是早已失效了。但是它的悲涼和曠遠,簡約和自然,都是自然而然的,是其貼切和傳神的固有風度。

    所以,我在向東詩中所感受到的質樸與峭拔,粗糲與枯瘦,也便找見了古往今來的傳承依據和理由。他的《老房子》、《空山》、《大樹》、《樹樁上的雪》諸篇,都可謂有此風格和神韻。“一場雪壓實另一場雪/年輪不見了/只見樹樁上的突兀的白/蒼白的白,白發的/白!白骨的/白!空白的/白!”——

    一頂孝帽子尋找頭顱

    向東不能忘記他那獨有的“燕地的憂郁”,衰敗與死,是他最傾心和核心的意象與主題。

    不過,除了這固執的悲,與骨子里的涼,向東終究也有幾分乃父的從容與超脫,有了幾分“一路問黃花”式的超然,“與落葉亂歸鳥”式的生命開悟的禪意。讀一讀《蘆花辭》,便會有此般感慨:“待到花開已白頭/也不錯/擠在一起/不分彼此無論伯仲/順著風//齊刷刷和我一起白頭//透明陽光里/一根白發一行詩/順著風……”

    自在之身輕似夢

    現在忽悠就過去了

    順著風

    現在忽悠就過去了

    忽悠又轉身折回來

    齊刷刷和我一起白頭

    難道沒有幾分曠達與徹悟?即便是尚有幾分不易覺察的荒遠與悲涼,但也更多了一些洞悉與淡定,有了幾許物我兩忘的佛心和禪機。

    當然,任何風格與寫法都是兩面的。或許向東還可以延續一番奮力的開辟,與向內的拓進,以讓其詩意更復雜和糾纏,更精警和更寬闊些。但那樣一來劉向東還是不是劉向東呢?我自然也不好說。

    2017年2月20日,北師大之京師學堂

     

     

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