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  • 當前位置:首頁>>理論評論

    張翎:書寫戰爭中的人性光輝 

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    來源:中國作家網
    作者:
    發布時間:2017-08-04
     

     

      張翎 旅居加拿大的華人女作家。20世紀90年代中后期開始在海外寫作,代表作有《余震》《雁過藻溪》《金山》《陣痛》等。小說曾多次獲得兩岸三地重大文學獎項,入選各式轉載本和年度精選本,并6次進入中國小說學會年度排行榜。《勞燕》是張翎的最新長篇力作。

    在張翎新作《勞燕》在京發布的當天,正好是唐山大地震41周年。得知這一信息后,現場有那么一刻突然安靜下來。很多人都不禁回想起張翎之前的作品《余震》,人性在災難面前所面臨的那種無奈,至今還讓人觸目驚心。而當人們緩過神來將注意力放到張翎《勞燕》這本新書時,發現張翎已將視角轉向了戰爭,以一個旁觀者的角度冷靜敘述,樹立起一個被戰爭嚴重傷害的堅強女人形象。

    “我其實是想探索災難把人性逼到角落的時候,它會迸發出怎樣的能量。”這句話仿佛概括了張翎這部新作品的實質。在天災與戰爭面前,人性的美好與丑惡都在這種極端環境中毫不保留地展現出來。張翎就像是一個收集者,她冷靜地收集著這些被撕裂的人性片段,并用自己的手重新構建起一個更為鮮活的世界,告訴人們災難背后的希望。

    靈感種子早已埋在心里

    很多人對于張翎要寫戰爭題材感到驚訝,事實上這顆創作的靈感種子早已埋在她的心里。在成為專職作家之前,張翎在北美的職業是聽力康復師,她對這個工作的感受就是“先結婚后戀愛”:“開始只想靠它來養活自己的寫作,后來逐漸感受到這個工作的樂趣。”

    因為工作的緣故,她接觸到了很多退役老兵,她發現這些人的經歷是普通人難以想象的:“是他們給我開了如此大的一扇窗,讓我對疼痛、創傷、救贖、治愈這些話題有了全新的思考。”

    在一次偶然的機會,她接觸到了抗日戰爭中的幾個退伍老兵,他們用平和的態度回憶起他們曾經熟知的一個女孩。張翎此時心里突然一震,她想象這個女孩曾經的光彩,也想象著她與那些少年們的情感糾葛,阿燕這個人物就在她心中開始萌生:“在構思一場男人戰爭故事的過程中,我心生出一片綠葉,這就是關于阿燕最初的設想。”

    同時一個在國際背景下的中國抗戰圖景慢慢地開始鋪開:受美國海軍中國事務團的委派,來自芝加哥的美國一等軍械師伊恩和他的戰友們來到江南小村月湖,建立了一個中美特種技術訓練營。伊恩與已在月湖村生活了十幾年的美國牧師比利,還有身懷深仇大恨前來投考訓練營的中國學員劉兆虎,結下了深厚的戰友情誼。這3個男人與一個因遭日寇強暴而逃離家鄉的少女阿燕之間,產生了復雜糾結的情愫。

    “這場慘烈的戰爭,從宏觀上來說是超越國界的世界性的戰爭,從微觀上來說,它應該是每一個個人的戰爭。每一個經歷過這場戰爭的人,肯定帶給他的記憶和創傷是一輩子的。”所以張翎愿意從普通人的視角去探討、找尋那被歷史遺忘的片段,深挖戰爭背后的故事。

    “勞燕”在這本書里對應了兩個含義:一個主人公的名字,另外一個是代表情人“勞燕分飛”。不過張翎覺得這個含義還不僅如此:“我想講比這個更廣的分離的意思,戰爭不僅是讓有情人不能在一起,戰爭也是讓人跟故土和家園分離,戰爭是讓人跟你自己的家庭和跟你自己現存社會的關系隨時分離。其實我想探討的是這樣的一個戰爭的過程,戰爭的結果都是一種分離。”張翎覺得《勞燕》是一個很合適的名字,里面有悲傷、有憐憫,會讓人想到戰爭不僅是一個既發的事件,它也是既發事件所造成的嚴重的后果,這個后果可能是貫穿一生的。

    復原傷害,然后踩在腳下

    《勞燕》帶領讀者直接親臨了戰爭的殘酷性,在小說的開首,一顆炸彈呼嘯而至,美麗的茶園留下一個巨大的彈坑。而破壞其實剛剛開始。

    戰爭不僅吞噬了人們的日常生活,還將所有人的命運吸附到一個駭人的黑洞中去,曾經擁有的貌似恒久的東西,一瞬間全都化為烏有。小說中,3個男人和一個女人,在戰爭的腹臟里,就此開始了世事的艱辛。活著或者死去,成了每天面對的現實。這樣的恐懼,既碾壓著小說里的人物,同樣也碾壓著讀者的感受。

    然而,張翎在展示戰爭的兇殘之后,又執意拿人性的溫暖照亮一雙雙失魂落魄的眼睛。首先是阿燕,這個被戰爭摧毀最為嚴重的女人,漸漸在嚴酷中站立起來,她習醫治病,一人照顧孩子。張翎在這些感人的抗爭中,給這個戰爭的廢墟點了火把,給讀者心里照了亮。這也許就是張翎直面戰爭的勇敢所在,她最終是要將這一切的傷害,通過人的復原,將它踩在腳下。

    同時張翎在創作這個角色的時候也傾注了不少的感情,如在這3個人感情關系處理上,起筆是男女之間的愛情,但很快她就把這種情感提升到了一個更為寬闊、恒久的層次,那就是來自生命的更為深厚的愛與陪伴。這樣情感的處理方式,使得戰爭中的愛情更為真實可信,也讓整個作品的格局更加深遠,更為當下的文學創作貢獻了性格極為鮮明的女性形象。

    阿燕面對苦難面對背叛,最后的還擊是“以德報怨”,以“愛”的力量讓所有的苦難都長出新生的花瓣。這個形象溫柔又有力量,寬容又有原則,堅韌卻又豐沛,寬恕但不遺忘,獨立卻又承擔。“我想借阿燕這樣一個角色,展現在苦難的涅槃和命運的蹂躪下,我們民族的女性所展現出來的強韌的生命毅力和令人動容的情感動因。”而正是通過3個男性不同的視角對阿燕這個角色進行還原,這一女性的人性光輝達到了最大的傳達和表現。

     

     

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